Optics, beamlines, and instrumentation

Cartoon of a 

generic beamline

Cartoons of elliptical and parabolic focussing

Addition of scattering amplitudes in gratings

Cartoons of movements of different monochromator types

Cartoon of spherical gratings and the Rowland circle

Cartoons of Poisson noise and signal-to-noise ratios

Cartoon of CCD exposure and shift-register readout