Optics, beamlines, and instrumentation

Cartoon of a 

generic beamline

Cartoons of elliptical and parabolic focussing

Flexing of an x-ray mirror 

Addition of scattering amplitudes in gratings

Cartoons of movements of different monochromator types

Cartoons of spherical gratings and the Rowland circle

Cartoon of a photon-counting detector 

Cartoons of Poisson noise and signal-to-noise ratios

Cartoon of CCD exposure and shift-register readout